Gig Economy in Europe


  • Davide Dazzi Ires Emilia-Romagna



Digitalization, Industrial relations, cloudwork


This report wishes to explore the dimension, quality and characteristics of Gig Economy in a comparative way. Platform capitalism represents the most appropriate form to interpret the ongoing capitalistic transformations. But the modalities to analyze this phenomenon and the normative efforts appear as still very much contaminated by the prevalent narratives among public opinion. This comparative analysis looks at the main studies carried out at a European and national level on the quality and diffusion of platform economies, in an attempt to go beyond mainstream narratives, and therefore offer a new angle for policy actions. This study is divided transversally by topic (definitions and terminology, occupational comparison, working conditions) and five chapters are dedicated to different platform typologies:

  • Cloudwork as a growing modality for “offline” companies to outsource work and divide work globally;
  • Food delivery, and a gallery on the main existing platforms, followed by an analysis and evaluation of future trends and evolutions in the sector;
  • Domestic work and a European comparison proposing a report on the main platform and a study on growth trends;
  • Digital tourism, to understand the impact on the sector and potential future scenarios.

Lastly, the report closes with an analysis on the interaction between Gig Economy and industrial relations, trying to investigate the theoretical underpinnings and the experimentations adopted in the Eu28. Facing a lack of coherent legislation on the platform system, collective bargaining has moved towards the proposal of benchmark standards and the safeguard of working conditions of digital workers. Even though these are still not widespread, there are contractual experimentations dedicated to platform workers going on in various countries (Italy, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland) which try to surpass the hurdle represented by the juridical employment status (autonomous or subordinate) which has often created problems for lawmakers.




How to Cite

Dazzi, D. (2019). Gig Economy in Europe. Italian Labour Law E-Journal, 12(2), 67–122.